The City of Rome

The capital city of Ancient Rome was Rome.

It was found on the coast of the middle of Italy, but today it is the capital of the country, Italy.

Size of Rome

When Rome was first formed, it was a very small area.

As the army got bigger and people got more money, the city got bigger.

Eventually, more than a million people lived in Ancient Rome.

Why Was Rome Important?

Rome was an important city because it was where the government was and where all of the cities power was.  Rome was considered the strongest city in the world for over 1000 years.

Roman Roadways

The roadways of Rome were very important.  They were built to be easy to walk on and to travel on.  These roads led to the city of Rome, and since Rome was a very rich city, it was a place where they could afford to build nice roads.

There were roads in Rome that lead to Via Appia, Via Aurelia, Via Cassia, and Via Salaria, and most of the roads inside of the cities were paved.

Running Water

There were aqueducts that were built beside and under the roads that allowed the Ancient Roman people to be able to get water into the city.

People that were rich were able to even get running water into their homes while other people would get the water from fountains that were found all over the city.

Bath Houses

Not only were their fountains that people in Rome could get water to drink from, but there were also things called public bathhouses.

The public bathhouses were placing that people in the city would gather, and they would use these bathhouses in order to take baths.  Some people had bathhouses in their homes.

Many of the bathhouses were places that people would gather so that they could meet up with their friends and talk to them.

The Founding of Rome

Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC.  Romulus and Remus, which were twin gods, were the ones that the Romans believed founded Rome.

Roman mythology was very important, and many people believed that the gods of Rome were the ones that did all good things.

When Romulus killed Remus so that he could be King, the city of Rome was named after him, and that is why Rome is called what it is today.

Ancient Roman Seven Hills

Rome was built on different hills, seven of them including:

  • Viminal Hill
  • Aventine Hill
  • Quirinal Hill
  • Capitoline Hill
  • Caelian Hill
  • Esquiline Hill
  • Palatine Hill

Palatine Hill is said to be the original city, and this hill was found by the god Romulus.

City Center

In the center of Rome is the Forum.  This is a plaza that is rectangular in shape and was a place where the public would go for all sorts of activities.

Inside this city center was a temple for the gods where people could go and worship the gods and bring them gifts.

There were also other buildings such as the basilicas where there would be government meetings and other public things that took place there.

Often times, things that the mayor would want to do in the city would take place in the Forum, and this could include speeches, elections, and more.

Roman Buildings

There were many different buildings around the city that were used for homes, temples, record keeping, government building, and more.


The Regia was a place where the kings lived.  This eventually became a place for the priesthood.

Arch of Septimus Severus

This was a place where a giant arch was built.


A place where people could make different kinds of speeches.

Temple of Saturn

A temple where people could go and worship the god, Saturn, who was the god of agriculture.


The Comitium was a place where people would get together for government meetings.

Temple of Caesar

This temple was built to honor Julius Caesar

Senate Curia

The Senate Curia was where the senate would meet to make laws and different decisions.

Temple of Jupiter

This was a temple to honor the god, Jupiter.


The Colosseum was a Roman building that held games and gladiator battles.


Most of the buildings were built of stones and marble.  Some of them were made of wood and concrete.  The homes that were made of wood were considered a fire danger.

Roman Republic

The Roman Republic was a powerful area and had great leaders and senators.  This was a time when government officials were voted in, and they would make laws.

There were limited amounts of time that those elected from the Roman Republic could serve, and this was different than a life serving of a king.

Roman Empire

In 45 BC, Julius Caesar took over the Roman Republic and made himself a dictator of Rome.  Later, Caesar Augustus was the first Roman Emperor.


The Roman Empire split when the Empire was ruled out of the city of Rome.

Fall of Rome

In 476 AD, Rome fell, which was the Western Roman Empire, but the Eastern Roman Empire or the Byzantine Empire still ruled for more than 1000 more years.

Facts About the Ancient City of Rome:

  • Other buildings in Rome were Circus Maximus, the Pantheon, and Pompey’s Theater.
  • When the Forum was too crowded, people would have to move their speeches to other parts of the city.
  • Trials were held in the Forum.
  • Rome was the most powerful nation for almost 1000 years.
  • Roman culture impacted Western culture, including language, government, and architecture.
  • The Circus Maximus was a stadium that held chariot races.
  • When Rome fell, it was considered the beginning of the Dark Ages.
  • Latin is the native language of Rome.

What Did You Learn?

  1. Where is Rome located?  Rome was located on the border of Italy but is now the whole country of Italy.
  2. Who ruled Rome after the Roman Republic fell? After the Roman Republic fell, Julius Caesar became a dictator of Rome.
  3. What was Rome called after the Roman Republic fell? Rome was then called the Roman Empire.
  4. What kinds of buildings were found in Ancient Rome? Coliseums, Temples, government buildings, and more.
  5. What was the Forum in Ancient Rome used for? This was a place where the public could gather in order to have meetings, speeches, and more.