Ancient Indian Science

Ancient India made significant contributions to the field of science. They developed advanced knowledge in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and metallurgy. Their discoveries and inventions laid the foundation for modern scientific advancements.

For example, the concept of zero and the decimal system originated in ancient India. Their understanding of the solar system and the use of herbal medicines were also highly advanced for their time. The scientific achievements of ancient India continue to influence and inspire scientists today.

Ancient India Science Facts For Kids

  • Ancient Indians invented zero and the decimal system.
  • They created the game of chess, known as ‘Chaturanga’.
  • Ayurveda, a holistic healing system, originated in India.
  • They knew Earth was a sphere before many others.
  • Indian astronomers recognized the planets in our solar system.
  • They accurately calculated the solar year as 365.258 days.
  • Ancient Indians performed successful surgeries, including cataract surgery.
  • They created the yoga system for physical and mental well-being.
  • They developed advanced metallurgy, creating rust-resistant iron.
  • India’s Harappan civilization had a sophisticated urban planning system.

Vedic Mathematics

Ancient India is renowned for its significant contributions to science, most notably in the field of mathematics through the unique system of Vedic Mathematics. Developed between 1500 BCE and 500 BCE, this system derived from the Vedas – the oldest scriptures of Hinduism – offers simple yet effective methods for intricate mathematical calculations.

Vedic Mathematics encompasses sixteen sutras or aphorisms, explicating principles of various mathematical branches including arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and calculus. Beyond enhancing comprehension of mathematical concepts, it bridges the gap between mathematics, philosophy, and spirituality. This deep-seated interconnection between the abstract numerical world and tangible reality exemplifies the scientific brilliance of ancient India.

Ancient Indian Astronomy

Ancient Indian astronomy, which holds a distinguished position in global scientific history, was pioneered by Indian astronomers who made detailed, systematic observations of celestial bodies, thereby contributing immensely to the understanding of the universe.

These astronomers’ profound knowledge of celestial phenomena is evident in the Vedic texts such as the Rigveda and the Upanishads, which contain references to astronomical concepts. Interestingly, the notion of a heliocentric universe was initially proposed in India, well ahead of its acceptance in the Western world. This scientific foresight is further exemplified by the renowned Indian astronomer and mathematician Aryabhata, whose seminal work, Aryabhatiya, not only accurately measured the solar year but also introduced the concept of zero, thus revolutionizing the fields of astronomy and mathematics.

The high degree of precision in the Surya Siddhanta, an ancient Indian astronomical text, specifically its calculations for solar eclipses and planetary orbits, further underscores the considerable scientific acumen of ancient Indian astronomers and their significant contributions to the field of astronomy.

Ayurveda and Ancient Medicine

Ancient India was a significant center for scientific exploration and advancement, particularly in the health and medical fields. The region gave birth to Ayurveda, one of the world’s earliest comprehensive healing systems, developed over 3,000 years ago.

This ancient Indian medicinal system is rooted in the principle that health and wellness hinge on a finely tuned equilibrium among the mind, body, and spirit. Pioneering scientific minds from this era established the groundwork for surgical operations, including cataract and plastic surgeries, utilizing their profound knowledge of human anatomy. Additionally, they delved into concepts such as immunity, digestion, metabolism, and the therapeutic attributes of diverse plants and herbs.

These pioneering contributions continue to shape the field of medicine and health, as Ayurvedic practices and treatments, celebrated for their natural and holistic health approach, are gaining global recognition.

Ancient Indian Engineering

Ancient Indian engineering exemplifies the advanced scientific insights of that era, with Indian engineers mastering various domains like architecture, civil and mechanical engineering, and shipbuilding. The ingenuity of these engineers is evident in the complexity of the Harappan city-planning system, a testament to their profound comprehension of hydraulic engineering, as seen in their advanced water management and drainage systems.

The Iron Pillar of Delhi, erected around 402 AD, is a remarkable display of ancient Indian metallurgy, highlighting their knowledge of corrosion resistance. Ancient Indians also demonstrated their proficiency in hydrodynamics through their excellence in designing and constructing both riverine and maritime vessels.

The architectural brilliance and engineering prowess are further reflected in the construction of majestic structures like the Konark Sun Temple and the Brihadeeswarar Temple. These accomplishments collectively affirm the highly advanced scientific knowledge and its practical application in ancient India.

Sanskrit Scientific Literature

Ancient India, known for its profound scientific knowledge, is well reflected in its rich Sanskrit literature encompassing texts like the Vedas, Upanishads, and the Aranyakas. These works offer vast information about diverse subjects such as astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and metallurgy.

For instance, the 7th-century BC text, the Sushruta Samhita, provides valuable insights into medicine and surgery, while the Aryabhatiya, penned by Aryabhata in the 5th century AD, introduces groundbreaking theories in astronomy and mathematics.

The Sanskrit texts also include the Siddhantas, traditional Indian astronomy books, which elaborate on various topics, from eclipse predictions to the heliocentric model of the solar system. The scientific knowledge depth and breadth encapsulated in these texts illustrate the advanced state of scientific understanding and inquiry in ancient India.

Metallurgy in Ancient India

Ancient India made significant contributions to the field of metallurgy, demonstrating remarkable advancements over 2000 years before Christ’s birth. Their expertise extended to the extraction and processing of various metals such as copper, bronze, lead, gold, iron, and particularly steel.

A testament to their prowess is the legendary ‘Iron Pillar’ near Delhi, a 23 feet 8 inches high structure weighing over 6 tons. Made of 98% wrought iron, it has impressively withstood corrosion for over 1600 years. The ancient Indian metallurgists were also skilled in zinc extraction by distillation process, a technique known as the ‘Bharas method’ which was widely utilized in Rajasthan around the 12th century AD.

Furthermore, the world-renowned Wootz steel, a high-quality steel alloy known for its hardness and durability, was developed in South India in the 6th century BC. These various advancements underscore the pivotal role ancient India played in the global history of metallurgy.

Ancient Indian Physics Concepts

Ancient Indian science, especially in physics, was incredibly ahead of its time, offering a wealth of advanced concepts and theories. The ancient Indian philosophers proposed ideas closely resembling those in modern physics.

The ‘Pancha Bhoota’ or ‘Five Elements’ theory, which perceives the universe as a composition of five fundamental elements – earth, water, fire, air, and ether, can be considered an early interpretation of the states of matter. Another groundbreaking contribution was the concept of ‘Shunya’ or ‘Zero’, which not only transformed mathematical computations but also bears similarities to the modern physics concept of a vacuum.

Ancient scriptures also spoke of an infinite universe with numerous solar systems, a notion that aligns with the principles of contemporary cosmology. These scientific theories, profoundly embedded in ancient Indian texts like the Vedas and Upanishads, illustrate a deep comprehension of nature and the physical world.

Ancient Indian Botany

The field of botany owes significant contributions to Ancient India, where numerous existing texts such as the Vedas, written around 1500 BCE, provide detailed observations of plant life, classifications, and uses. An early medical text, the Charaka Samhita, features a list of over 700 medicinal plants and their applications, while the Arthashastra delineates the duties of a unique class of officers, the Vrikshayurveda, assigned to tree care.

A testament to the period’s advanced comprehension of plant sciences is the science of Ayurveda, which heavily relied on India’s vast botanical wealth. With activities ranging from crop cultivation to medicinal plant use, Ancient Indian botany was incredibly advanced, exerting a lasting influence on contemporary botanical and medical practices.

Indian Inventions and Discoveries

Ancient India, a nucleus of scientific exploration and technological novelty, was home to scientists and scholars who pioneered remarkable progress in diverse areas such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and metallurgy. It was during the 5th century AD that Indian mathematicians introduced the concept of zero and the decimal system, revolutionizing numerical understanding.

The ancient medical science of Ayurveda, still prevalent today, was another notable Indian contribution. The advanced understanding of solar and lunar eclipses, the idea of a heliocentric universe, and the calculation of the Earth’s circumference were all integral aspects of ancient Indian astronomy. In metallurgy, ancient India was credited with the innovation of producing high-quality steel, or Wootz steel, which was later employed to forge the renowned Damascus swords.

Taken together, these monumental contributions underscore the rich scientific tradition and innovative spirit that characterized ancient India.

Yoga and Spiritual Sciences

Ancient India was a ground-breaking center for scientific advancements, particularly in the area of spirituality and Yoga, a holistic discipline that was developed in the country’s ancient scriptures. This holistic discipline, Yoga, integrates the body, mind, and spirit through the systematic practice of physical postures, regulated breathing techniques, meditation, ethical disciplines, and spiritual awakening.

Other spiritual sciences of India, including Ayurveda and astrology, are closely tied to Yoga. Ayurveda, known as the science of life, recommends a balanced diet and lifestyle for physical and mental health which often complements Yoga for overall wellness. On the other hand, Jyotish, or Indian astrology, recognized as the science of light and time, provides guidance for life’s challenges and decisions, blending seamlessly with the Yogic pursuit of inner peace and knowledge.

The ancient Indian scientists, or Rishis, utilized these spiritual sciences to comprehend the interconnections between the universe, human life, and consciousness, thereby providing timeless wisdom for holistic well-being and spiritual development.

Indian Science

You already know that the ancient Indians were excellent engineers from the way their cities, Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, were laid out. But did you know they also excelled at Math, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, and Medicine?









You may know that the Arabs and Persians are often given credit for inventing our number system. But, actually, they got many of their ideas from Ancient India. In fact, the Arabic name for a “mathematician” is “hindsa”, which means “from India”!

So, what did the Indians do with numbers? Something really big—-zero! The concept of “zero”, or nothing, come from the ancient Indians. This concept is very important, because it not only gives us a way of expressing “nothing”, it’s also used to show place value. If you didn’t have a zero in 405, how would you write four hundreds and five ones, and show that there are no tens?

The Indians may have been the first to use symbols for math operations (such as +, -, x and ÷). They also had knowledge of geometry, as shown in the geometric patterns they painted on temple walls; and algebra, using symbols for unknown numbers in equations.


the moonIn ancient Indian cities, archeologists found small stones with holes drilled through the center. What were these “ring stones” used for, they asked? They found out that the stones were used to trace the movement of the sun throughout the year. You probably already know that the sun takes a different path through the sky depending on what season it is, because of the movement of the earth around the sun, and the direction of its tilt.

Ancient Indian astronomers figured out that the sun is actually a star, which not many ancient people knew, and they counted the number of planets in our solar system. They also figure out how to calculate when an eclipse would occur. An eclipse is when the moon passes between the earth and the sun, covering up the sun (solar eclipse), or when the moon passes through the earth’s shadow (lunar eclipse).

Do you know how big the earth is around? This is called the earth’s circumference, and the ancient Indians were able to figure it out! They also understood something about the force of gravity.


The ancient Indians classified 5 elements of materials. They were: earth, fire, air, water, and space. This was not too far from our modern ideas of solids, liquids, and gasses.

And they believed that all matter is made of smaller particles. Have you heard that idea before in your science classes?


The ancient Indians learned about smelting metal from the Mesopotamians. Smelting metal means that you take a rock that has a particular metal in it (called an ore), and use heat and chemicals to burn off the other things you don’t need and get the metal you want. For example, smelting iron ore will give you iron and the ancient Indians must have learned how to do this because they had iron-tipped arrows around 400 century B.C.

Centuries later, in around 500 A.D., the Indians constructed an iron pillar in Delhi. This pillar has stood for 1500 years and has not rusted.

The Indians’ skill at making chemical paints and dyes is seen on many ancient wall paintings that still look bright and almost freshly painted.


The ancient Indians were well known for their knowledge and skill in the medical field. They wrote a “textbook” on medicine that was used for 2000 years! This was translated into many languages, including Arabic and Latin, showing that other ancient people valued it as well.

Ancient doctors studied the bodies of the dead to learn physiology (how the body is put together). They also studied the causes of disease. Indian doctors relied many on herbs for healing but also knew how to perform surgery if needed.

Finally, the Indians developed a system of exercise called Yoga. Yoga is used to help both the body and the mind. It is said to release hidden energy and calm a worried mind. Many people around the world practice yoga today.

Shipbuilding and Navigation

The idea of building ships and sailing was well-known to the ancient Indians. Many ancient drawings show sailing ships, and we know that they traded with distant countries.

They also knew how to use a compass. This was an iron fish floating in oil. The magnetized fish would always point north. This handy instrument was called a “fish-machine”.

Overall, you can see that the ancient Indians were quite knowledgeable and that India has contributed much to our knowledge of mathematics and science today!