All Facts about Mesopotamia

MesopotamiaMesopotamia is an area in south western Asia where the first human civilisation emerged. The people who lived in Mesopotamia were nomads which means that they had no particular home; they moved from place to place. Soon this changed as people began to settle in particular locations. Mesopotamia soon saw the rise of cities, regions and empires. This timeline provides a summary of the history of Mesopotamia from its earliest settlements. It looks at the timeline through the main empires of the period: the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian Empires.
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  • Timeline of Mesopotamia

    Timeline of Mesopotamia

    Mesopotamia is an area in south western Asia where the first human civilisation emerged. The people who lived in Mesopotamia were nomads which means that they had no particular home.
  • Great Cities of Mesopotamia

    Great Cities of Mesopotamia

    Mesopotamia is credited with the invention of cities. There were many cities in Mesopotamia. These cities were all ruled by different kings and had their own gods.
  • The Ziggurat

    The Ziggurat

    A Ziggurat was a place of worship built on many levels with steps all around it. Ziggurats were usually located at the very centre of Mesopotamian cities and, after 2000 BC, they could be found in most of those cities
  • Science, Inventions, and Technology

    Science, Inventions, and Technology

    From the very earliest settlements around 8000 B.C., the people of Mesopotamia started to create many of the things that we associate with civilisation: writing, mathematics, astronomy, transport etc.
  • Assyrian Army

    Assyrian Army

    The Assyrians were very able people with a range of achievements in science, technology and culture. However, it was not these civilised qualities that allowed them to create an empire.
  • Persian Wars

    Persian Wars

    The Persian Wars involved a prolonged battle between Greece and Persia between 429 BC and 449 BC. The wars consisted of two large Persian invasions and a series of legendary battles.


  • Sumerians


    The most important part of ancient Mesopotamia was a land to the south called the Sumer. The people of this land lived in city-states and were known as the Sumerians.
  • Akkadian Empire

    Akkadian Empire

    While the Sumerians occupied the south of Mesopotamia, the Akkadian Empire began in the north. The Sumerians and the Akkadians did have a lot in common apart from their languages which were different.
  • Babylonian Empire

    Babylonian Empire

    During the Akkadian Empire, Babylon existed as a small city on the Euphrates River. A King from a tribe called the Amorites established a kingdom at the city and so began the Babylonian Empire.
  • Assyrian Empire

    Assyrian Empire

    The Assyrians were a people from the north of Mesopotamia who were known for their love of warfare and conquering others. Their empires went through a number of phases stretching over nearly 1500 years.
  • Persian Empire

    Persian Empire

    The Persian Empire, which is sometimes called the Achaemenid Empire, was enormous, stretching from Anatolia (we now call this Turkey) and Egypt across to the north of India and Central Asia.


  • Daily Life of Mesopotamia

    Daily Life of Mesopotamia

    Daily life in Mesopotamia was, in some ways, not unlike our modern existence. People were recognised by social rank, they lived in different forms of housing, the family was important, as was their leisure time.
  • Art and Artisans

    Art and Artisans

    Artisans were important people in ancient Mesopotamia as the objects they created were not only useful for the everyday lives of ordinary people and the upper classes, but they were often very beautiful and help us better understand our ancient history.
  • Religion and Gods

    Religion and Gods

    In ancient Mesopotamia each city-state had its own god or goddess and their family. People believed that the gods were actually present in their cities, and they built temples called ziggurats for the gods to live in.
  • Code of Hammurabi

    Code of Hammurabi

    Hammurabi was one of the best-known kings of the Babylonian Empire. Under Hammurabi, Babylon gained more control over Mesopotamia. But one of his most important achievements was the ‘code of Hammurabi’.
  • Sumerian Writing and Cuneiform

    Sumerian Writing and Cuneiform

    The first system of writing was invented by the Sumerians. The main reason the Sumerians came up with this system was through necessity.
  • Epic of Gilgamesh

    Epic of Gilgamesh

    The Epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest example of epic literature. The story was told in an oral form before people started to write it down.


  • Gilgamesh

    Famous Kings of Mesopotamia

    Gilgamesh was the king of the city of Uruk. Gilgamesh was regarded as a hero by his people not only due to his courage and beauty but also because he protected them by building a wall around Uruk.
  • Cyrus the Great

    Cyrus the Great

    Cyrus the Great who is also known as Cyrus II was born between 600 and 575 BC and lived in Persia.
  • Darius I

    Darius I

    Darius was a cousin of Cambyses and he decided to seize power before someone else did. First, he had to deal with Bardiya who claimed to be Cambyses brother, but was an imposter.
  • Hammurabi


    Hammurabi was born at some time between 1820 and 1810 BC. He was the son of King Sinmuballit of Babylon. We don’t know very much about Hammurabi’s early years.
  • Nebuchadnezzar II

    Nebuchadnezzar II

    King Nebuchadnezzar II is seen by many as one of the most remarkable kings of ancient Babylon. King Nabopolassar, his father, had achieved the difficult conquest of the mighty Assyrians and had freed Babylon from their harsh military rule.
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